Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal, an internationally peer-reviewed multidisciplinary journal, is published quarterly in print and online with free access to full text articles. Its aims are: to be an internationally recognised regional medium of biomedical communication; to encourage medical research and publication in Oman, the Gulf and further afield, and to create awareness of new developments among health professionals in Oman and beyond. SQUMJ is listed in PubMed and indexed in SCOPUS, the Directory of Open Access Journals, the Al Manhal database of Arab journals and the WHO Index Medicus for the Eastern Mediterranean Region. SQUMJ DOES NOT CHARGE AUTHORS FOR SUBMISSION OR PUBLICATION.
SQUMJ is an Open Access Journal. This means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles in this journal without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the Budapest Open Access Initiative (BOAI) definition of open access.
Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy
A new approach in the management of head and neck cancers(Review) Deepti Sharma, George Koshy, Sonal Grover and Bhushan Sharma
ABSTRACT: Cervical lymph node metastasis affects the prognosis and overall survival rate of and therapeutic planning for patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs). However, advanced diagnostic
modalities still lack accuracy in detecting occult neck metastasis. A sentinel lymph node biopsy is a minimally invasive auxiliary method for assessing the presence of occult metastatic disease in a patient with a clinically negative neck. This technique increases the specificity of neck dissection and thus reduces morbidity among oral
cancer patients. The removal of sentinel nodes and dissection of the levels between the primary tumour and the sentinel node or the irradiation of target nodal basins is favoured as a selective treatment approach; this technique has the potential to become the new standard of care for patients with HNSCCs. This article presents an update on clinical applications and novel developments in this field.
Keywords: Head and Neck Cancer; Squamous Cell Carcinomas; Neck Dissection; Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy;
Role of Travel Motivations, Perceived Risks and Travel Constraints on Destination Image and Visit Intention in Medical Tourism
Theoretical model(Review) Mohammad J. Khan, Shankar Chelliah, Mahmod S. Haron and Sahrish Ahmed
ABSTRACT: Travel motivations, perceived risks and travel constraints, along with the attributes and characteristics of medical tourism destinations, are important issues in medical tourism. Although the importance of these factors is already known, a comprehensive theoretical model of the decision-making process of medical tourists has yet to be established, analysing the intricate relationships between the different variables involved. This article examines a large body of literature on both medical and conventional tourism in order to propose a comprehensive theoretical framework of medical tourism decision-making. Many facets of this complex phenomenon require further empirical investigation.
Keywords: Medical Tourism; Travel; Trends; Motivation; Risks; Intentions; Theoretical Model.
New Classification for Heart Failure with Mildly Reduced Ejection Fraction
Greater clarity or more confusion?(Sounding Board) Sunil Nadar
ABSTRACT: The latest European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines for the diagnosis and management of heart failure include a new patient group for those with heart failure with mildly reduced ejection fraction (HFmrEF). By defining this group of patients as a separate entity, the ESC hope to encourage more research focusing on patients with HFmrEF. Previously, patients with this condition were caught between two classifications—heart failure with reduced ejection fraction and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Hopefully, the inclusion
of new terminology will not increase confusion, but rather aid our understanding of heart failure, a complex clinical syndrome.
Keywords: Heart Failure; Ventricular Ejection Fraction; Guidelines as Topic; Nomenclature.
Dorsal Phalloplasty to Preserve Penis Length after Penile Prosthesis Implantation
(Original Study) Osama Shaeer, Kamal Shaeer and Islam A. Rahman
ABSTRACT:Objectives: Following penile prosthesis implantation (PPI), patients may complain of a decrease in visible penis length. A dorsal phalloplasty defines the penopubic junction by tacking pubic skin to the pubis, revealing the base of the penis. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a dorsal phalloplasty in increasing the visible penis length following PPI. Methods: An inflatable penile prosthesis was implanted in 13 patients with severe erectile dysfunction (ED) at the Kamal Shaeer Hospital, Cairo, Egypt, from January 2013 to May 2014. During the surgery, nonabsorbable tacking sutures were used to pin the pubic skin to the pubis through the same penoscrotal incision. Intraoperative penis length was measured before and after the dorsal phalloplasty. Overall patient satisfaction was measured on a 5-point rating scale and patients were requested to subjectively compare their postoperative penis length with memories of their penis length before the onset of ED. Results: Intraoperatively, the dorsal phalloplasty increased the visible length of the erect penis by an average of 25.6%. The average length before and after tacking was 10.2 ± 2.9 cm and 13.7 ± 2.8 cm, respectively (P <0.002). Postoperatively, seven patients (53.8%) reported a longer penis, five patients (38.5%) reported no change in length and one patient (7.7%) reported a slightly shorter penis. The mean overall patient satisfaction score was 4.9 ± 0.3. None of the patients developed postoperative complications. Conclusion: A dorsal phalloplasty during PPI is an effective method of increasing visible penis length, therefore minimising the impression of a shorter penis after implantation.
ABSTRACT:Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate cardiovascular complications among patients who abuse amphetamines. Methods: This cross-sectional study took place between April 2014 and April 2015 among 3,870 patients referred to the Toxicology Emergency Department of Baharlou Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Those with clinical signs of drug abuse and positive urine screening tests were included in the study, while cases of chronic abuse were excluded. Cardiac complications were evaluated via electrocardiography (ECG) and transthoracic echocardiography. Results: A total of 230 patients (5.9%) had a history of acute amphetamine abuse and positive urine tests. Of these, 32 patients (13.9%) were <20 years old and 196 (85.2%) were male. In total, 119 (51.7%) used amphetamine and methamphetamine compounds while 111 (48.3%) used amphetamines with morphine or benzodiazepines. The most common ECG finding was sinus tachycardia (43.0%), followed by sinus tachycardia plus a prolonged QT interval (34.3%). Mean creatine kinase-MB and troponin I levels were 35.9 ± 4.3 U/mL and 0.6 ± 0.2 ng/mL, respectively. A total of 60 patients (26.1%) were admitted to the Intensive Care Unit. The majority (83.3%) of these patients had normal echocardiography results. The mean aortic root diameter (ARD) was 27.2 ± 2.8 mm. Abnormalities related to the ARD were found in 10 patients (16.7%), three of whom subsequently died. Conclusion: According to these findings, cardiac complications were common among Iranian patients who abuse amphetamines, although the majority of patients had normal echocardiography and ECG findings. Keywords: Amphetamines; Substance Abuse; Cardiovascular Abnormalities; Tachycardia; Echocardiography; Electrocardiography; Iran.
Decision-to-Delivery Time Intervals in Emergency Caesarean Section Cases
Repeated cross-sectional study from Oman(Original Study) Kaukab Tashfeen, Malini Patel, Ilham M. Hamdi, Ibrahim H. A. Al-Busaidi and Mansour N. Al-Yarubi
ABSTRACT:Objectives: In cases of fetal intolerance to labour, meeting the standard decision-to-delivery time interval (DDI) of ≤30 minutes is challenging. This study aimed to assess DDIs in emergency Caesarean section (CS) cases to identify factors causing DDI delays and the impact of a delayed DDI on perinatal outcomes. Methods: This repeated cross-sectional study included all emergency CS procedures performed due to acute fetal distress, antepartum haemorrhage or umbilical cord prolapse at the Nizwa Hospital, Nizwa, Oman. Three audit cycles of three months each were conducted between April 2011 and June 2013, including an initial retrospective cycle and two prospective cycles following the implementation of improvement strategies to address factors causing DDI delays. Poor perinatal outcomes were defined as Apgar scores of <7 at five minutes, admission to the Special Care Baby Unit (SCBU) or a stillbirth. Results: In the initial cycle, a DDI of ≤30 minutes was achieved in 23.8% of 84 cases in comparison to 44.6% of 83 cases in the second cycle. In the third cycle, 60.8% of 79 women had a DDI of ≤30 minutes (P <0.001). No significant differences in perinatal outcomes for cases with a DDI of ≤30 minutes versus 31–60 minutes were observed; however, a DDI of >60 minutes was significantly associated with poor neonatal outcomes in terms of increased SCBU admissions and low Apgar scores (P <0.001 each). Factors causing DDI delays included obtaining consent for the CS procedure, a lack of operating theatre availability and moving patients to the operating theatre. Conclusion: The identification of factors causing DDI delays may provide opportunities to improve perinatal outcomes.
General Anaesthesia Protocols for Patients Undergoing Electroconvulsive Therapy
Retrospective analysis of 504 sessions over a five-year period at a tertiary care hospital in Oman(Original Study) Aravind Narayanan, Chandar Lal and Hamed Al-Sinawi
ABSTRACT:Objectives: This study aimed to review general anaesthesia protocols for patients undergoing electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) at a tertiary care hospital in Oman, particularly with regards to clinical profile, potential drug interactions and patient outcomes. Methods: This retrospective study took place at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH), Muscat, Oman. The electronic medical records of patients undergoing ECT at SQUH between January 2010 and December 2014 were reviewed for demographic characteristics and therapy details. Results: A total of 504 modified ECT sessions were performed on 57 patients during the study period. All of the patients underwent a uniform general anaesthetic regimen consisting of propofol and succinylcholine; however, they received different doses between sessions, as determined by the treating anaesthesiologist. Variations in drug doses between sessions in the same patient could not be attributed to any particular factor. Self-limiting tachycardia and hypertension were periprocedural complications noted among all patients. One patient developed aspiration pneumonitis (1.8%). Conclusion: All patients undergoing ECT received a general anaesthetic regimen including propofol and succinylcholine. However, the interplay of anaesthetic drugs with ECT efficacy could not be established due to a lack of comprehensive data, particularly with respect to seizure duration. In addition, the impact of concurrent antipsychotic therapy on anaesthetic dose and subsequent complications could not be determined. Keywords: General Anesthesia; Propofol; Succinylcholine; Electroconvulsive Therapy; Drug Interactions; Oman.
Contraceptive Utilisation Among Mothers of Reproductive Age in Ajman, United Arab Emirates
(Original Study) Naila Kanwal, Jayakumary Muttappallymyalil, Shatha Al-Sharbatti and Iman Ismail
ABSTRACT:Objectives: This study aimed to determine contraceptive utilisation among mothers aged 18–49 years old in Ajman, United Arab Emirates (UAE). Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out from May to November 2013. A total of 400 participants were recruited from two primary healthcare centres and one private hospital in Ajman. An interviewer-administered validated questionnaire was used for data collection. Results: The frequency of previous and current contraceptive use was 68.0% and 61.8%, respectively. Expatriates more frequently used contraceptives in comparison to Emiratis (77.3% versus 54.3%, respectively). Contraceptive use increased significantly with age (75.5% among >35-year-olds versus 57.3% among ≤25-year-olds; P <0.050) and education level (83.3% among postgraduates versus 60.0% among those with primary education; P <0.050). In addition, contraceptive use was significantly higher among those living in a nuclear family system (P <0.050). A univariate analysis indicated significant associations between contraceptive use and age, nationality, education level, type of family system, employment sector, parity, knowledge of birth control measures and source of birth control information (P <0.050 each). However, no significant associations were found via multivariate analysis. Conclusion: Healthcare practitioners can play a pivotal role in providing contraceptive advice which could lead to an improvement in contraceptive utilisation. Efforts are recommended to raise awareness regarding newer forms of contraceptives among mothers of reproductive age in the UAE. Keywords: Contraception; Family Planning Services; Reproductive Health; Women; United Arab Emirates.
Knowledge and Attitudes Towards Basic Life Support Among Health Students at a Saudi Women’s University
(Original Study) Maha A. Al-Mohaissen
ABSTRACT:Objectives: Awareness of basic life support (BLS) is paramount to ensure the provision of essential life-saving medical care in emergency situations. This study aimed to measure knowledge of BLS and attitudes towards BLS training among female health students at a women’s university in Saudi Arabia. Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study took place between January and April 2016 at five health colleges of the Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. All 2,955 students attending the health colleges were invited to participate in the study. Participants were subsequently asked to complete a validated Englishlanguage questionnaire which included 21 items assessing knowledge of BLS and six items gauging attitudes to BLS. Results: A total of 1,349 students completed the questionnaire (response rate: 45.7%). The mean overall knowledge score was very low (32.7 ± 13.9) and 87.9% of the participants had very poor knowledge scores. A total of 32.5% of the participants had never received any BLS training. Students who had previously received BLS training had significantly higher knowledge scores (P <0.001), although their knowledge scores remained poor. Overall, 77.0% indicated a desire to receive additional BLS training and 78.5% supported mandatory BLS training. Conclusion: Overall knowledge about BLS among the students was very poor; however, attitudes towards BLS training were positive. These findings call for an improvement in BLS education among Saudi female health students so as to ensure appropriate responses in cardiac arrest or other emergency situations. Keywords: Basic Cardiac Life Support; Health Occupations Students; Medical Education; Knowledge; Attitudes; Saudi Arabia.
Knowledge, Practice and Self-Efficacy in Evidence-Based Practice among Midwives in East Iran
(Original Study) Elham Azmoude, Fereshteh Farkhondeh, Maryam Ahour and Maryam Kabirian
ABSTRACT:Objectives: The successful implementation of evidence-based practice (EBP) can lead to appropriate and effective midwifery care during pregnancy, childbirth and in the postnatal period. However, levels of knowledge and confidence in one’s ability to apply EBP are related to its effective implementation. This study aimed to investigate levels of knowledge, practice of and self-efficacy towards the use of EBP among midwives in East Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study took place between January and February 2016 and involved 98 midwives employed at two hospitals and all four urban health care centres in Torbat-e Heydariyeh, Iran. Two subscales of the Evidence-Based Practice Questionnaire were used to assess participants’ knowledge and practice of EBP, respectively, while a modified version of a previously described scale was used to determine self-efficacy. Results: A total of 76 midwives participated in the study (response rate: 77.6%). Mean knowledge, practice and self-efficacy scores were 4.48 ± 0.94, 3.53 ± 0.68 and 2.80 ± 0.81, respectively. Significant relationships were found between mean selfefficacy, practice and knowledge scores and proficiency in English language (P = 0.001 each) and statistical methods (P <0.050 each). Additionally, significant relationships were found between knowledge and practice of EBP and proficiency in the use of databases (P <0.050 each). Knowledge and self-efficacy scores were significantly correlated with practice (P = 0.001 each). Conclusion: These findings demonstrate a need for improvement in the self-efficacy, practice and knowledge of EBP among midwives in East Iran. Interventions that promote these factors may help increase the use of EBP in this population.
Vision Screening of Ophthalmic Nursing Staff in a Tertiary Eye Care Hospital
Outcomes and ocular healthcare-seeking behaviours(Original Study) Ruhi A. Khan, Ches Souru, Sejo Vaghese, Ziaul Yasir and Rajiv Khandekar
ABSTRACT:Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate ocular healthcare-seeking behaviours and vision screening outcomes of nursing staff at a tertiary eye care hospital. Methods: This study was conducted between April and September 2016 among all 500 nurses employed at the King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Data were collected on age, gender, use of visual aids, the presence of diabetes, a history of refractive surgery and date of last ocular health check-up. Participants were tested using a handheld Spot™ Vision Screener (Welch Allyn Inc., Skaneateles Falls, New York, USA). Results: A total of 150 nurses participated in the study (response rate: 30.0%). The mean age was 41.2 ± 8.9 years old. Distance spectacles, reading spectacles and both types of spectacles were used by 37 (24.7%), 32 (21.3%) and 10 (6.7%) nurses, respectively. A total of 58 nurses (38.7%) failed the vision screening test. Visual defects were detected for the first time in 13 nurses (8.7%). With regards to regular eye checkups, 77 participants (51.3%) reported acceptable ocular healthcare-seeking behaviours; this factor was significantly associated with age and the use of visual aids (P <0.01 each). Conclusion: A high proportion of participants failed the vision screening tests and only half displayed good ocular healthcare-seeking behaviours. This is concerning as ophthalmic nurses are likely to face fewer barriers to eye care services than the general population.
Keywords: Vision Screening; Refractive Errors; Health Care Seeking Behavior; Nurses; Saudi Arabia.
Validation of a Persian Short-Form Version of a Standardised Questionnaire Assessing Oral Cancer Knowledge, Practice and Attitudes Among Dentists
(Original Study) Nader Navabi, Maryam A. Hashemipour and Aida Roughani
ABSTRACT:Objectives: Oral cancer is a global health problem; however, many dentists lack the necessary skills, knowledge and capacity to diagnose oral cancers early. This study aimed to examine the validity and reliability of a Persian short-form version of a standardised questionnaire to assess dentists’ knowledge, practice and attitudes towards oral cancer. Methods: This cross-sectional analytical study was carried out in May 2015 in Tehran, Iran. An original 39-item English-language questionnaire developed by Yellowitz et al. was translated into Persian using forward and backward translation methods. A total of 15 dental professionals were asked to assess the questionnaire for content validity. Based on their feedback, a 20-item short-form version was prepared, including six demographic, six knowledge, four attitude and four practice items. The translated short-form questionnaire was subsequently distributed to 973 general dental practitioners attending a dental conference in Tehran. Internal consistency and reliability were assessed with Cronbach’s alpha coefficient and item-total correlation calculations. Results: A total of 13 professionals and 313 general dentists participated in the study (response rates: 86.7% and 32.2%, respectively). After the elimination of six items (two knowledge, two attitude and two practice items), the validity and reliability of the questionnaire was confirmed. Conclusion: The final Persian 14-item version of the questionnaire had acceptable validity and internal consistency. These results indicate that researchers can use this translated short-form version to evaluate oral cancer knowledge, attitudes and practices among Persian-speaking dentists; this will allow for a comparison of data between different populations. Keywords: Oral Cancer; Knowledge; Attitudes; Dentists; Validity and Reliability; Translations; Questionnaire Design; Iran.
Knowledge Regarding Secondary Prevention Lifestyle Practices Among Patients with Ischaemic Heart Disease in Oman
Pilot study(Brief Communication) Tamim R. Al-Tamimi, Hafidh A. Ba-Omar and Sunil Nadar
ABSTRACT:Objectives: Secondary prevention of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) is very important. This study aimed to assess knowledge of necessary lifestyle changes among Omani patients diagnosed with IHD. Methods: This cross-sectional pilot study took place between October 2015 and February 2016 at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH), Muscat, Oman. A total of 30 random patients with IHD from the Cardiology Outpatient Clinic of SQUH were included. A 30-item survey was used to determine patients’ knowledge of necessary lifestyle practices following their IHD diagnosis, with scores of <70% indicating poor knowledge. Results: Overall, 21 patients (70.0%) had low knowledge levels. Scores ranged from 38.9−94.4% (mean: 60.7% ± 14.1%). No demographic factors were found to predict low scores, although there were some differences in individual questions. Conclusion: Low knowledge levels regarding lifestyle changes were observed among IHD patients in Oman. More efforts should be made to educate these patients for the secondary prevention of IHD.
Jaw Osteomyelitis as a Complication of Sickle Cell Anaemia in Three Omani Patients
Case reports and literature review(Case Report) Hilal Al-Ismaili, Omar Nasim and Abdulaziz Bakathir
ABSTRACT: Sickle cell anaemia (SCA) is a common haemoglobinopathy among people from the Middle East, the Afro-Caribbean region, the Mediterranean and East India. While osteomyelitis of the long bones is a welldocumented complication of SCA, there are few documented cases of SCA patients presenting with jaw osteomyelitis. We report three SCA patients with chronic jaw osteomyelitis who presented to the Department of Oral Health, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman, between 2009 and 2013. Two of the patients had osteomyelitis of the mandible and the third had osteomyelitis of the maxilla. In addition, a brief review of the literature is presented focusing on the clinical presentation, diagnosis and management of jaw osteomyelitis among patients with SCA.
Case report and differential diagnosis(Case Report) Sonal Grover, Mihir Jha, Bhushan Sharma, Shekhar Kapoor, Kumud Mittal, Nithin K. Parakkat, Anil B. Shivappa and Ravleen Kaur
ABSTRACT: Verrucous hyperplasia (VH) is a rare exophytic oral mucosal lesion which can transform into verrucous carcinoma (VC), its malignant but clinically similar counterpart. These entities can be distinguished by the lack of invasive growth in VH cases; as such, it is essential to include a margin with adequate depth when performing a biopsy of the epithelium of the lesion. We report an 80-year-old male patient who presented to the Bapuji Dental College & Hospital, Davangere, Karanataka, India, in 2011 with a warty whitish-pink growth on the inside of his cheek. The patient was treated with wide surgical excision of the lesion and a diagnosis of VH was made based on histopathological features. There was no evidence of recurrence at a five-year follow-up. This report highlights the histological variations, pathogenesis and differential diagnosis of VH.
Keywords: Hyperplasia; Verrucous Carcinoma; Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Histology, diagnosis; Case Report; India.
Additional Muscle Slip of Bicipital Aponeurosis and its Anomalous Relationship with the Median Cubital Vein
(Case Report) Nandini Bhat, Kumar M. R. Bhat, Antony S. D’Souza and Sushma R. Kotian
ABSTRACT: The cubital region of the arm is a common site for recording blood pressure, taking blood for analysis and administering intravenous therapy and blood transfusions. During the routine dissection of a 70-year-old male cadaver at the Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, Karnataka, India, in 2015, it was observed that the aponeurotic insertion of the biceps brachii muscle divided into two slips. The medial slip fused normally with the deep fascia of the forearm, while flexor carpi radialis muscle fibres originated from the lateral slip. There was also a single vein in the forearm, the cephalic vein, which bifurcated to form the median cubital vein and the cephalic vein proper. The median cubital vein, further reinforced by the radial vein, passed deep to the two slips of the bicipital aponeurosis and then continued as the basilic vein. During venepuncture, medical practitioners should be aware of potential cubital fossa variations which could lead to nerve entrapment syndromes.
Keywords: Anatomic Variation; Elbow; Aponeurosis, abnormalities; Case Report; India.
Anomalous Innervation of the Median Nerve in the Arm in the Absence of the Musculocutaneous Nerve
(Case Report) Khursheed Raza, Seema Singh, Neerja Rani, Raghav Mishra, Kamakshi Mehta and Saroj Kaler
ABSTRACT: The brachial plexus innervates the upper extremities. While variations in the formation of the brachial plexus and its terminal branches are quite common, it is uncommon for the median nerve to innervate the muscles of the arm. During the dissection of an elderly male cadaver at the Department of Anatomy, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India, in 2016, the coracobrachialis muscle was found to be supplied by a direct branch from the lateral root of the median nerve and the musculocutaneous nerve was absent. The branches of the median nerve supplied the biceps brachii and brachialis muscles and the last branch continued as the lateral cutaneous nerve of the forearm. These variations may present atypically in cases of arm flexor paralysis or sensory loss on the lateral forearm. Knowledge of these variations is important in surgeries and during the administration of regional anaesthesia near the shoulder joint and upper arm.
Keywords: Anatomic Variation; Dissection; Median Nerve; Musculocutaneous Nerve; Case Report; India.
A True Human Tail in a Neonate
Case report and literature review(Case Report) Mahesh K. Pillai and Smitha T. Nair
ABSTRACT: A true human tail is a benign vestigial caudal cutaneous structure composed of adipose, connective tissue, muscle, vessels, nerves and mechanoreceptors. A true human tail can be distinguished from a pseudotail as the latter is commonly associated with underlying spinal dysraphism, which requires specialised management. True human tails are very rare, with fewer than 40 cases reported to date. We report a healthy one-day-old male newborn who was referred to the Bharath Hospital, Kottayam, Kerala, India, in 2014 with a cutaneous appendage arising from the lumbosacral region. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine ruled out spinal dysraphism. The appendage was removed by simple surgical excision. Clinicians should emphasise use of ‘true tail’ and ‘pseudotail’ as specific disparate terms as the clinical, radiological and histological findings of these conditions differ significantly, along with management strategies and outcomes.
Keywords: Tail; Newborn; Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Spinal Dysraphism; Case Report; India.
Unusual Branching Pattern of the Lateral Cord of the Brachial Plexus Associated with Neurovascular Compression
Case report(Case Report) Hitendra K. Loh, Shikha Singh and Rajesh K. Suri
ABSTRACT: The brachial plexus consists of a network of nerves that innervates the upper limbs and its musculature. We report a rare formation of the lateral cord of the brachial plexus observed during the dissection of a 47-year-old male cadaver at the Department of Anatomy, Vardhman Mahavir Medical College, New Delhi, India, in 2016. The lateral cord was exceptionally long with twin lateral pectoral nerves and twin lateral roots of the median nerve. The proximal lateral root of the median nerve was thin in comparison to the medial root of the median nerve. The distal lateral root of the median nerve was thicker and followed an unusual course through the coracobrachialis muscle. In the lower third of the arm, the median nerve and the brachial artery—along with its vena comitans—spanned through the brachialis muscle. Surgeons, anaesthesiologists, radiologists and anatomists should be aware of such anatomical variations as they may result in neurovascular compression.
Keywords: Anatomic Variation; Dissection; Brachial Plexus; Pectoral Nerves; Median Nerve; Musculocutaneous Nerve; Case Report; India.
Focal Scalp Hair Heterochromia in an Infant
(Case Report) Pramod Kumar
ABSTRACT: Hair heterochromia involves the presence of two different non-artificially induced colours of hair in the same individual which can be due to either iron deficiency anaemia, genetic mutations or mosaicism. We report a six-month old male infant who presented to the Department of Dermatology, Saham Hospital, Saham, Oman, in 2013 with focal scalp hair heterochromia without any detectable underlying abnormalities. The area of heterochromia was still noticeable at a one-year follow-up.
A Turning Point for Paediatric Developmental Services in Oman
Establishment of a national autism screening programme(Letter to Editor) Watfa Al-Mamari, Ahmed B. Idris, Muna Al-Jabri, Ahlam Abdelsattar, Fatma Al-Hinai, Moza Al-Hatmi and Amira Al-Raidan