Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal, an internationally peer-reviewed multidisciplinary journal, is published quarterly in print and online with free access to full text articles. Its aims are: to be an internationally recognised regional medium of biomedical communication; to encourage medical research and publication in Oman, the Gulf and further afield, and to create awareness of new developments among health professionals in Oman and beyond. SQUMJ is listed in PubMed and indexed in SCOPUS, the Directory of Open Access Journals, the Al Manhal database of Arab journals and the WHO Index Medicus for the Eastern Mediterranean Region. SQUMJ DOES NOT CHARGE AUTHORS FOR SUBMISSION OR PUBLICATION.
SQUMJ is an Open Access Journal. This means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles in this journal without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the Budapest Open Access Initiative (BOAI) definition of open access.
The Role of Damage-Associated Molecular Patterns in Human Diseases
Part I - Promoting inflammation and immunity(Review) Walter G. Land
ABSTRACT: There is increasing interest by physicians in the impact of the innate immune system on human diseases. In particular, the role of the molecules that initiate and amplify innate immune pathways, namely damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), is of interest as these molecules are involved in the pathogenesis of many human disorders. The first part of this review identifies five classes of cell stress/tissue injury-induced DAMPs that are sensed by various recognition receptor-bearing cells of the innate immune system, thereby mounting inflammation, promoting apoptosis and shaping adaptive immune responses. The DAMPs activate and orchestrate several innate immune machineries, including inflammasomes and the unfolded protein response that synergistically operates to induce inflammatory, metabolic and adaptive immune pathologies. Two examples of autoimmune diseases are discussed as they represent a typical paradigm of the intimate interplay between innate and adaptive immune responses.
Paget’s Disease of Bone among Various Ethnic Groups
(Review) Mira Merashli and Ali Jawad
ABSTRACT: Paget’s disease of bone (PDB) is a relatively benign disease common among many European populations, including those in the UK, Italy and Spain. However, it appears to be rare among Scandinavians and non-European immigrants living in Europe. The prevalence among Asian populations may be underestimated because a large number of reported cases were discovered incidentally. There is a need for surveys addressing the prevalence rate and consequences of PDB to be carried out in various parts of the world, particularly Asia.
Keywords: Paget’s Disease of Bone; Ethnic Groups; Epidemiology.
Health Workforce Planning
An overview and suggested approach in Oman(Review) Abdulaziz Al-Sawai and Moeness M. Al-Shishtawy
ABSTRACT: In most countries, the lack of explicit health workforce planning has resulted in imbalances that threaten the capacity of healthcare systems to attain their objectives. This has directed attention towards the prospect of developing healthcare systems that are more responsive to the needs and expectations of the population by providing health planners with a systematic method to effectively manage human resources in this sector. This review analyses various approaches to health workforce planning and presents the Six-Step Methodology to Integrated Workforce Planning which highlights essential elements in workforce planning to ensure the quality of services. The purpose, scope and ownership of the approach is defined. Furthermore, developing an action plan for managing a health workforce is emphasised and a reviewing and monitoring process to guide corrective actions is suggested.
Keywords: Health Workforce, organization and administration; Human Resources Development; Health Planning; Oman.
Trends in the Risk for Cardiovascular Disease among Adults with Diabetes in Oman
(Original Study) Jawad Al-Lawati, Magdi Morsi, Asya Al-Riyami, Ruth Mabry, Medhat El-Sayed, Mahmoud Abd El-Aty and Hawra Al-Lawati
ABSTRACT:Objectives: This study aimed to investigate trends in the estimated 10-year risk for developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) among adults with diagnosed diabetes in Oman. In addition, the effect of hypothetical risk reductions in this population was examined. Methods: Data from 1,077 Omani adults aged ≥40 years with diagnosed diabetes were collected and analysed from three national surveys conducted in 1991, 2000 and 2008 across all regions of Oman. The estimated 10-year CVD risk and hypothetical risk reductions were calculated using risk prediction algorithms from the Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE), Diabetes Epidemiology Collaborative Analysis of Diagnostic Criteria in Europe (DECODE) and World Health Organization/International Society of Hypertension (WHO/ISH) risk tools. Results: Between 1991 and 2008, the estimated 10-year risk of CVD increased significantly in the total sample and among both genders, regardless of the risk prediction algorithm that was used. Hypothetical risk reduction models for three scenarios (eliminating smoking, controlling systolic blood pressure and reducing total cholesterol) identified that reducing systolic blood pressure to ≤130 mmHg would lead to the largest reduction in the 10-year risk of CVD in subjects with diabetes. Conclusion: The estimated 10-year risk for CVD among adults with diabetes increased significantly between 1991 and 2008 in Oman. Focused public health initiatives, involving recognised interventions to address behavioural and biological risks, should be a national priority. Improvements in the quality of care for diabetic patients, both at the individual and the healthcare system level, are required.
Prevalence of Hepatitis C among Multi-transfused Thalassaemic Patients in Oman
Single centre experience(Original Study) Khalid Al-Naamani, Ibrahim Al-Zakwani, Siham Al-Sinani, Fauzia Wasim and Shahina Daar
ABSTRACT:Objectives: Regular blood transfusions are essential for patients with thalassaemia major. However, infections with hepatotropic viruses remain a major concern. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection among patients with homozygous beta thalassaemia in a single centre in Oman. Methods: A retrospective chart review of 200 patients treated at the Thalassemia Unit of Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH) in Muscat, Oman, between August 1991 and December 2011 was performed. Relevant demographic and clinical characteristics were collected, including age, gender, HCV status and the presence of endocrinopathies. Results: A total of 81 patients (41%) were found to be anti-HCV-antibody (anti-HCV)-positive. HCV ribonucleic acid tests were performed on 65 anti-HCV-positive patients and were positive among 33 (51%); the remaining 16 patients died before these tests were available. Anti-HCV-positive patients were significantly older than anti-HCV-negative patients (P <0.001) and were more likely to be diabetic than anti-HCV-negative patients (27% versus 8%; P <0.001). A total of 100 patients had been transfused before they were transferred to SQUH in 1991; of these, 70 (70%) were anti-HCV-positive. Only 11 (11.5%) of the 96 patients who were seronegative in 1991, or who were transfused later, became seropositive. Conclusion: It is likely that the high prevalence of HCV among multi-transfused thalassaemic patients in Oman is due to blood transfusions dating from before the implementation of HCV screening in 1991 as the risk of HCVassociated transfusions has significantly reduced since then. Additionally, results showed that anti-HCV-positive patients were more likely to be diabetic than anti-HCV-negative patients.
Selective Use of 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography and Computed Tomography in the Management of Metastatic Disease from Colorectal Cancer
Results from a regional centre(Original Study) Sadaf Jafferbhoy, Adam Chambers, James Mander and Hugh Paterson
ABSTRACT:Objectives: Computed tomography (CT) scans are routinely used for primary staging and disease surveillance in patients with colorectal cancer. However, these scans have limited sensitivity in some organs and can only detect lesions with morphological changes, whereas 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (18F-FDG-PET) scans are able to detect areas of metabolic change before morphological changes appear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of 18F-FDG-PET/CT scans over conventional imaging during preoperative work-ups or follow-ups in a selected group of patients. Methods: This retrospective cohort study, which took place between July 2009 and May 2011, assessed 1,043 patient records from the South East Scotland Cancer Network colorectal cancer database. A total of 102 patients who underwent 18F-FDG-PET/CT scans in addition to conventional imaging were included in the study. These patients had potentially resectable metastases, equivocal findings on CT scans and elevated carcinoembryonic antigen levels with negative conventional imaging. Results: Of the 102 patients included in the study, 22 underwent a preoperative 18F-FDG-PET/CT scan and 80 underwent a follow-up 18F-FDG-PET/CT scan. In the preoperative scan group, the 18F-FDG-PET/CT scan had a major impact on 16 patients (72.75%) and no impact on six patients (27.25%). In the follow-up scan group, the 18F-FDG-PET/CT scan had a major impact on 51 (63.75%), a minor impact on four (5%), no impact on 22 (27.5%) and a negative impact on three (3.75%) patients. Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrated that 18F-FDGPET/ CT scans have a considerable effect on disease management when undertaken among indicated colorectal cancer patients.
Keywords: 18F Fluorodeoxyglucose; Positron Emission Tomography; Colorectal Cancer; Metastases; Cancer Staging; Recurrence; Carcinoembryonic Antigen; United Kingdom.
Diagnostic Screening Workflow for Mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 Genes
(Original Study) Stella Lai, Clare Brookes, Debra O. Prosser, Chuan-Ching Lan, Elaine Doherty and Donald R. Love
ABSTRACT:Objectives: Screening for mutations in large genes is challenging in a molecular diagnostic environment. Sanger-based DNA sequencing methods are largely used; however, massively parallel sequencing (MPS) can accommodate increasing test demands and financial constraints. This study aimed to establish a simple workflow to amplify and screen all coding regions of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) genes by Sanger-based sequencing as well as to assess a MPS approach encompassing multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and pyrosequencing. Methods: This study was conducted between July 2011 and April 2013. A total of 20 patients were included in the study who had been referred to Genetic Health Services New Zealand (Northern Hub) for BRCA1/2 mutation screening. Patients were randomly divided into a MPS evaluation and validation cohort (n = 10 patients each). Primers were designed to amplify all coding exons of BRCA1/2 (28 and 42 primer pairs, respectively). Primers overlying known variants were avoided to circumvent allelic drop-out. The MPS approach necessitated utilisation of a complementary fragment analysis assay to eliminate apparent false-positives at homopolymeric regions. Variants were filtered on the basis of their frequency and sequence depth. Results: Sanger-based sequencing of PCRamplified coding regions was successfully achieved. Sensitivity and specificity of the combined MPS/homopolymer protocol was determined to be 100% and 99.5%, respectively. Conclusion: In comparison to traditional Sangerbased sequencing, the MPS workflow led to a reduction in both cost and analysis time for BRCA1/2 screening. MPS analysis achieved high analytical sensitivity and specificity, but required complementary fragment analysis combined with Sanger-based sequencing confirmation in some instances. Keywords: Massively Parallel Sequencing; BRCA1 Gene; BRCA2 Gene; HBOC Syndrome; Detection, heterozygote.
Reliability of the Emergency Severity Index
Meta-analysis(Original Study) Amir Mirhaghi, Abbas Heydari, Reza Mazlom and Farzaneh Hasanzadeh
ABSTRACT:Objectives: Although triage systems based on the Emergency Severity Index (ESI) have many advantages in terms of simplicity and clarity, previous research has questioned their reliability in practice. Therefore, the aim of this meta-analysis was to determine the reliability of ESI triage scales. Methods: This metaanalysis was performed in March 2014. Electronic research databases were searched and articles conforming to the Guidelines for Reporting Reliability and Agreement Studies were selected. Two researchers independently examined selected abstracts. Data were extracted in the following categories: version of scale (latest/older), participants (adult/paediatric), raters (nurse, physician or expert), method of reliability (intra/inter-rater), reliability statistics (weighted/unweighted kappa) and the origin and publication year of the study. The effect size was obtained by the Z-transformation of reliability coefficients. Data were pooled with random-effects models and a meta-regression was performed based on the method of moments estimator. Results: A total of 19 studies from six countries were included in the analysis. The pooled coefficient for the ESI triage scales was substantial at 0.791 (95% confidence interval: 0.787‒0.795). Agreement was higher with the latest and adult versions of the scale and among expert raters, compared to agreement with older and paediatric versions of the scales and with other groups of raters, respectively. Conclusion: ESI triage scales showed an acceptable level of overall reliability. However, ESI scales require more development in order to see full agreement from all rater groups. Further studies concentrating on other aspects of reliability assessment are needed. Keywords: Triage; Emergency Treatment; Algorithm; Reliability and Validity; Meta-Analysis.
Prevalence of Sleep Deprivation and Relation with Depressive Symptoms among Medical Residents in King Fahd University Hospital, Saudi Arabia
(Original Study) Esraa M. Al-Maddah, Badria K. Al-Dabal and Mohammad S. Khalil
ABSTRACT:Objectives: Sleep deprivation is common among medical residents of all specialties. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of sleep deprivation and depressive symptoms among medical residents in King Fahd University Hospital (KFUH) in Al Khobar, Saudi Arabia. Furthermore, the association between sleep deprivation, sleepiness and depressive symptoms was examined. Methods: This cross-sectional study took place between February and April 2012 and involved 171 KFUH medical residents of different specialties. Data were collected using a specifically designed questionnaire eliciting demographic information, working hours and number of hours of sleep. In addition, validated Arabic versions of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory-2 (BDI-2) were used. Results: The prevalence of acute sleep deprivation and chronic sleep deprivation among residents in KFUH was 85.9% and 63.2%, respectively. The prevalence of overall sleepiness was 52%; 43.3% reported being excessively sleepy in certain situations while 8.8% reported being excessively sleepy regardless of the situation. Based on the BDI-2, the prevalence of mild, moderate and severe depressive symptoms was 43.3%, 15.2% and 4.7%, respectively. Significant associations were found between sleep deprivation and depressive symptoms; depressive symptoms and sleepiness, and depressive symptoms and being a female resident. Conclusion: The vast majority of medical residents had acute sleep deprivation, with more than half suffering from chronic sleep deprivation. The number of hours and quality of sleep among the residents were strongly associated with depressive symptoms. New regulations are recommended regarding the number of working hours and night duties for medical residents. Further studies should assess these new regulations on a regular basis. Keywords: Sleep Deprivation; Depression; Drowsiness; Physicians; Saudi Arabia.
Hepatoblastomas in Oman
Unveiling success(Original Study) Fatma Rabah, Nagwa El-Banna, Dipali Bhuyan, Ibrahim Al-Ghaithi, Mohamed Al-Hinai, Amal Al-Sabahi, Nawal Al-Mashaikhi and Ismail Beshlawi
ABSTRACT:Objectives: Primary malignant liver tumours account for more than 1% of all paediatric malignancies, with the most common form being hepatoblastomas (HB). Such malignancies among Arab populations have rarely been addressed in the literature. Using data from Oman’s sole national referral centre for childhood solid malignancies, this study aimed to present the nationwide Omani experience with HB over the past 21 years. Methods: This retrospective study reviewed the medical records of all children with HB who were managed in the Royal Hospital, Muscat, Oman, between January 1991 and April 2012. Clinical, radiological and laboratory characteristics were examined as well as treatments and outcomes. Results: During the study period, 15 patients with HB were treated. Of these, 10 have survived to date. Nine of the survivors were no longer receiving treatment and one patient still had the disease but was in a stable condition. Of the remaining five patients, three did not survive and two were lost to follow-up. The survival rate among patients who completed therapy was 91%. Conclusion: HB has an excellent prognosis in Oman. The main obstacle to improving outcomes among Omani patients is non-compliance with therapy. Keywords: Hepatoblastoma; Neoadjuvant Therapy; Hepatic Cancer; Oman.
Factors Responsible for the Prolonged Stay of Surgical Neonates in Intensive Care Units
(Original Study) Khalid M. Bhatti, Zainab N. Al-Balushi, Mahmoud H. Sherif, Sareyah M. Al-Sibai, Ashfaq A. Khan, Mazen A. Mohammed, et al.
ABSTRACT:Objectives: The length of hospital stay (HS) for patients is a major concern due to its social, economic and administrative implications; this is particularly important for neonates admitted to intensive care units (ICUs). This study aimed to determine the factors responsible for prolonged HS in surgical neonates. Methods: This retrospective study was conducted at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, in Muscat, Oman. The medical records of 95 neonates admitted to the neonatal ICU who underwent general surgical procedures between July 2009 and June 2013 were reviewed. Mann-Whitney U and Pearson’s Chi-squared tests were used for non-parametric numerical and categorical variables, respectively. A multiple regression analysis was performed to find a relationship between the variables and to detect the most important factor responsible for prolonged HS. A P value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Gestational age, birth weight, number of days on a ventilator and postoperative morbidity were associated with prolonged HS. Furthermore, the age of neonates at first full enteral feed was associated with increased HS using both independent and multiple regression analyses. Conclusion: Prolonged HS can occur as a result of many factors. In this study, a number of factors were identified, including low gestational age, low birth weight, increased number of days on a ventilator and postoperative morbidity. Additionally, neonate age at first full enteral feeds also correlated with increased HS. Further research on this topic is suggested to explore this correlation in more detail and to inform future practices. Keywords: Neonates; Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU); Length of Stay; Morbidity; Oman.
Voluntary Fasting to Control Post-Ramadan Weight Gain among Overweight and Obese Women
(Original Study) Suriani Ismail, Khadijah Shamsuddin, Khalib A. Latiff, Hazizi A. Saad, Latifah A. Majid and Fadlan M. Othman
ABSTRACT:Objectives: This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of an Islamic voluntary fasting intervention to control post-Ramadan weight gain. Methods: This study was conducted between July and November 2011. Two weight loss intervention programmes were developed and implemented among groups of overweight or obese Malay women living in the Malaysian cities of Putrajaya and Seremban: a standard programme promoting control of food intake according to national dietary guidelines (group B) and a faith-based programme promoting voluntary fasting in addition to the standard programme (group A). Participants’ dietary practices (i.e., voluntary fasting practices, frequency of fruit/vegetable consumption per week and quantity of carbohydrates/protein consumed per day), body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, fasting blood high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and total cholesterol (TC):HDL-C ratio were assessed before Ramadan and three months post-Ramadan. Results: Voluntary fasting practices increased only in group A (P <0.01). Additionally, the quantity of protein/carbohydrates consumed per day, mean diastolic pressure and TC:HDL-C ratio decreased only in group A (P <0.01, 0.05, 0.02 and <0.01, respectively). Frequency of fruit/vegetable consumption per week, as well as HDL-C levels, increased only in group A (P = 0.03 and <0.01, respectively). Although changes in BMI between the groups was not significant (P = 0.08), BMI decrease among participants in group A was significant (P <0.01). Conclusion: Control of post-Ramadan weight gain was more evident in the faith-based intervention group. Healthcare providers should consider faith-based interventions to encourage weight loss during Ramadan and to prevent post-Ramadan weight gain among patients.
Keywords: Overweight; Obesity; Religion and Medicine; Fasting; Weight Gain; Malaysia.
Perceived Benefits of Pre-Clinical Simulation-based Training on Clinical Learning Outcomes among Omani Undergraduate Nursing Students
(Original Study) Girija Madhavanprabhakaran, Esra Al-Khasawneh and Lani Wittmann
ABSTRACT:Objectives: This study aimed to explore the benefits perceived by Omani undergraduate maternity nursing students regarding the effect of pre-clinical simulation-based training (PSBT) on clinical learning outcomes. Methods: This non-experimental quantitative survey was conducted between August and December 2012 among third-year baccalaureate nursing students at Sultan Qaboos University in Muscat, Oman. Voluntary participants were exposed to faculty-guided PSBT sessions using low- and medium-fidelity manikins, standardised scenarios and skill checklists on antenatal, intranatal, postnatal and newborn care and assessment. Participants answered a purposely designed self-administered questionnaire on the benefits of PSBT in enhancing learning outcomes. Items were categorised into six subscales: knowledge, skills, patient safety, academic safety, confidence and satisfaction. Scores were rated on a four-point Likert scale. Results: Of the 57 participants, the majority (95.2%) agreed that PSBT enhanced their knowledge. Most students (94.3%) felt that their patient safety practices improved and 86.5% rated PSBT as beneficial for enhancing skill competencies. All male students and 97% of the female students agreed that PSBT enhanced their confidence in the safe holding of newborns. Moreover, 93% of participants were satisfied with PSBT. Conclusion: Omani undergraduate nursing students perceived that PSBT enhanced their knowledge, skills, patient safety practices and confidence levels in providing maternity care. These findings support the use of simulation training as a strategy to facilitate clinical learning outcomes in future nursing courses in Oman, although further research is needed to explore the objective impact of PSBT on learning outcomes. Keywords: Education; Patient Safety; Nursing; Maternal-Child Nursing; Clinical Competence; Middle East; Oman.
Trends in Epithelial Cell Abnormalities Observed on Cervical Smears over a 21-Year Period in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Kuwait
(Brief Communication) Kusum Kapila, Prem N. Sharma, Sara S. George, Azza Al-Shaheen, Ahlam Al-Juwaiser and Rana Al-Awadhi
ABSTRACT:Objectives: This study aimed to analyse trends in epithelial cell abnormalities (ECAs) in cervical cytology at a tertiary care hospital in Kuwait. Methods: ECAs in 135,766 reports were compared over three seven-year periods between 1992 and 2012. Conventional Papanicolaou (Pap) smear tests were used in the first two periods and ThinPrep (Hologic Corp., Bedford, Massachusetts, USA) tests were used in the third. Results: Significant increases in satisfactory smears, atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance/atypical glandular cells (AGUS/AGCs) were seen in the second and third periods (P <0.001). No significant increases were observed among low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSILs) or high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs) (P >0.05). An increase was noted in carcinomas between the first and second periods although a significant decline was seen in the third (P <0.014). Conclusion: Satisfactory smears, ASCUS and AGUS/AGC increased during the study period although no significant increases in LSILs, HSILs or carcinomas were observed. Keywords: Cytological Techniques; Papanicolaou Smear; Epithelial Cells; Retrospective Study; Kuwait.
Does Sickle Cell Disease Protect Against Diabetes Mellitus?
Cross-sectional study(Brief Communication) Ali A. Mohamed, Fathia Al-Qurashi and David L. Whitford
ABSTRACT:Objectives: The co-existence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and sickle cell disease (SCD) is rare. This study aimed to explore whether SCD patients have the same DM prevalence as the general population in a country with a high prevalence of DM. Methods: This cross-sectional study included all SCD adult patients admitted to Salmaniya Medical Complex, Bahrain, between 2003 and 2010 (n = 2,204). A random sample (n = 520) was taken to establish the prevalence of DM. Laboratory records were examined to determine the presence of DM. Results: There were 376 SCD patients with complete records; of these, 24 (6.4%) had DM. The age- and sex-standardised prevalence of DM was 8.3%. Conclusion: While the prevalence of DM in SCD patients in Bahrain was high, it was lower than expected in this population. SCD may have a protective effect towards DM development. However, the impact of these two conditions on vascular diseases suggest a need for screening and aggressive treatment in this population. Keywords: Diabetes Mellitus; Sickle Cell Disease; Prevalence; Epidemiology; Comorbidity; Vascular Diseases; Bahrain.
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone-Dependent Cushing’s Syndrome
Use of an octreotide trial to distinguish between pituitary or ectopic sources(Brief Communication) Omayma T. El-Shafie, Nooralddin Al-Saffi, Ahmed Al-Sajwani and Nicholas Woodhouse
ABSTRACT:Objectives: Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) overproduction is usually due to a pituitary tumour which is often not visible on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, ACTH overproduction may be due to an ectopic source. This study aimed to develop a simple non-invasive technique to differentiate these sources. Methods: This study took place in King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman, between 1988 and 2012. Serum cortisol levels were measured in nine patients with ACTH-dependent Cushing’s syndrome before and during a 72-hour trial of octreotide. All patients underwent computed tomography (CT) scans. MRI scans were performed on six patients. Results: CT scans were abnormal in three patients with ectopic ACTH production. MRI scans showed that three patients had pituitary microadenomas. Serum cortisol levels returned to normal in those with confirmed ectopic ACTH production. No response was found in the other six patients. Conclusion: A 72-hour trial of octreotide is recommended for patients with ACTH-dependent Cushing’s syndrome and a normal pituitary MRI. This trial will be a useful alternative to petrosal sinus sampling.
Heerfordt’s Syndrome Presenting with Recurrent Facial Nerve Palsy
Case report and 10-year literature review(Case Report) Preetam Chappity, Rajeev Kumar and Anjan K. Sahoo
ABSTRACT: Heerfordt’s syndrome is defined as a combination of facial palsy, parotid swelling, uveitis and fever in sarcoidosis cases. Heerfordt’s syndrome as a cause of facial palsy is very rare. We report a case of alternating facial nerve palsy in a 52-year-old female initially treated for Bell’s palsy. The patient was referred to the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhubaneswar, India, in January 2013 for clinical evaluation. She was found to have a parotid swelling and anterior intermediate uveitis. A pathoradiological evaluation suggested sarcoidosis and a final diagnosis of Heerfordt’s syndrome was made. Steroid treatment was initiated which led to an improvement in the facial palsy and uveitis as well as the disappearance of the parotid swelling with a corresponding decrease in angiotensin-converting enzyme levels. An English literature review was carried out to analyse the varied presentation of this syndrome. The analysis focused on presenting symptoms, biochemical markers and radiological findings of Heerfordt’s syndrome cases.
Keywords: Heerfordt Syndrome; Sarcoidosis; Facial Palsy; Case Report; India.
Trichilemmal Cyst of the Penis in a Paediatric Patient
(Case Report) Samuel Madan and Rashi Joshi
ABSTRACT: Paediatric penile cysts are uncommon. We report a five-year-old child with an asymptomatic progressively growing cyst on the ventral aspect of the penis after a hypospadias repair. The patient presented to the Cooper Health Clinic, Dubai, United Arab Emirates, in March 2012. A complete excision of the cyst was performed. Histology results delineated a capsulated benign trichilemmal cyst. No recurrence or complications were reported in the 26 months following the excision. We recommend an early and complete excision of all penile cysts to prevent the risk of urethral obstruction, infection, inflammation and rare malignant changes. This is the first reported case of a penile trichilemmal cyst in a child.
Keywords: Trichilemmal Cyst; Penis; Hypospadias; Child; Case Report; United Arab Emirates.
Cerebellar Mutism Following Closed Head Injury in a Child
(Case Report) Rajeev Kariyattil, Mohamed I. A. Rahim and Unnikrishnan Muthukuttiparambil
ABSTRACT: Cerebellar mutism is a rare occurrence following paediatric trauma. Although it is quite common after posterior fossa surgery in children, this phenomenon has rarely been reported following other insults, such as trauma, and its pathophysiology remains poorly understood. We report a seven-year-old child who presented to the casualty department of Sultan Qaboos University Hospital in Muscat, Oman, in May 2013 with a traumatic right cerebellar contusion. The child presented with clinical features of cerebellar mutism but underwent a rapid and spontaneous recovery. The possible mechanism of this occurrence is discussed.
Keywords: Head Injury; Mutism; Paediatrics; Complications; Case Report; Oman.
Vascular Anomalies in Children Misdiagnosed with Asthma
Case series(Case Report) Hashim Javad, Khalfan Al-Sineidi, Anas A. Abdelmogheth, Dilip Sankhla, Humoud Al-Dhuhli, Sinan I. Azzawi and Mohamed A. El-Naggari
ABSTRACT: In most asthmatic children, inhaled steroids can relieve and control the symptoms of asthma. Persistent wheezing and respiratory symptoms in young children despite appropriate treatment may indicate other diagnostic considerations. Delays in this diagnosis can result in unnecessary investigations, inappropriate treatment and further complications. We report three patients who presented to Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman, in the period between September 2010 and May 2012 with persistent wheezing due to compression of the trachea caused by vascular anomalies. All patients had double aortic arches putting pressure on the trachea, leading to respiratory manifestations and feeding problems. Following surgery, all cases showed improvement and no longer required medication. Without clinical suspicion and appropriate imaging, congenital vascular anomalies may remain undetected for years. Infants and children with chronic wheezing should be evaluated for vascular anomalies as soon as possible. General practitioners should refer all such patients to a tertiary-level hospital for further investigations and management. Keywords: Vascular Malformations; Aortic Arch Syndromes; Asthma; X-Ray Computed Tomography; Wheezing; Stridor; Case Report; Oman.
Utility of Magnetic Resonance Imaging T2* in Diagnosing and Monitoring Severe Cardiac and Hepatic Siderosis
(Medical Image) Shahina Daar, Moez Hassan, Vinodh Panjwani, Anil Pathare, Humoud Al-Dhuhli and Arwa Z. Al-Riyami