Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal, an internationally peer-reviewed multidisciplinary journal, is published quarterly in print and online with free access to full text articles. Its aims are: to be an internationally recognised regional medium of biomedical communication; to encourage medical research and publication in Oman, the Gulf and further afield, and to create awareness of new developments among health professionals in Oman and beyond. SQUMJ is listed in PubMed and indexed in SCOPUS, the Directory of Open Access Journals, the Al Manhal database of Arab journals and the WHO Index Medicus for the Eastern Mediterranean Region. SQUMJ DOES NOT CHARGE AUTHORS FOR SUBMISSION OR PUBLICATION.
SQUMJ is an Open Access Journal. This means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles in this journal without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the Budapest Open Access Initiative (BOAI) definition of open access.
Cutaneous Scar Prevention and Management
Overview of current therapies(Review) Sultan Al-Shaqsi and Taimoor Al-Bulushi
ABSTRACT: Cutaneous scarring is common after trauma, surgery and infection and occurs when normal skin tissue is replaced by fibroblastic tissue during the healing process. The pathophysiology of scar formation is not yet fully understood, although the degree of tension across the wound edges and the speed of cell growth are believed to play central roles. Prevention of scars is essential and can be achieved by attention to surgical techniques and the use of measures to reduce cell growth. Grading and classifying scars is important to determine available treatment strategies. This article presents an overview of the current therapies available for the prevention and treatment of scars. It is intended to be a practical guide for surgeons and other health professionals involved with and interested in scar management.
The Use of Laparoscopy in the Management of Trauma Patients
Brief review(Review) Yehia B. A. El-Bendary, Juhaina Al-Adawi and Hani Al-Qadhi
ABSTRACT: Laparoscopy is one of the most effective intervention modalities, resulting in improved outcomes for major surgeries. In the past decade, the laparoscopic approach in trauma patients has shown better diagnostic outcomes than traditional laparotomies. Furthermore, this approach is cost-effective, significantly reduces the length of hospital stay and contributes to reduced complication rates. However, the use of laparoscopies in trauma cases is generally restricted to patients with normal haemodynamic parameters and is contraindicated for individuals with head injuries. With advances in knowledge and improved training, laparoscopies can also be used in the treatment of other conditions, such as diaphragmatic injuries and organ lacerations. This article briefly reviews the extent of laparoscopy use and its significance in the management of trauma patients.
Need for inclusion in undergraduate nursing education(Sounding Board) Susan Achora and Joy K. Kamanyire
ABSTRACT: With the increasing global frequency of disasters, the call for disaster preparedness training needs to be reinforced. Nurses form the largest group of the healthcare workforce and are often on the frontline in disaster management. Therefore, nurses should be adequately equipped with the knowledge and skills to respond to disasters, starting from their pre-service training to their in-service professional training. However, the inclusion of disaster preparedness education in undergraduate nursing curricula is minimal in most countries. The purpose of this article is to highlight the current state of nursing education and training in disaster management, both generally and in Oman. The significance of disaster preparedness training and recommendations for its inclusion in nursing practice and education are also discussed.
Keywords: Disasters; Disaster Planning; Nursing Education; Students; Health Personnel; Oman.
Analysis of Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamines in the Common Smokeless Tobacco Afzal in Oman
(Original Study) Nawal Al-Mukhaini, Taher Ba-Omar, Elsadig A. Eltayeb and Aisha A. Al-Shehi
ABSTRACT:Objectives: There is a lack of awareness regarding the carcinogenicity of Afzal, an illegal smokeless tobacco product (STP) widely used among the Omani youth. Previous research has shown that certain types of tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) are associated with oral and lung cancers. This study therefore aimed to assess levels of four common TSNAs in a randomly selected sample of Afzal. Methods: This study was carried out at Sultan Qaboos University in Muscat, Oman, between April and September 2013. A random sample of Afzal was analysed for four types of TSNAs using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The four types of TSNAs analysed were 4-(N-nitrosomethylamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), N-nitrosonornicotine (NNN), N-nitrosoanatabine (NAT) and N-nitrosoanabasine (NAB). As a reference product, a sample of laboratory-manufactured American moist snuff (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA) was also used to confirm the accuracy and precision of the analysis. Results: The analysis revealed total TSNA levels of 3.573 μg/g in the Afzal sample. Mean levels of NNN, NNK, NAT and NAB were 1.205, 1.015, 0.809 and 0.545 μg/g, respectively. Conclusion: Levels of the two most abundant TSNAs (NNN and NNK) found in the Afzal sample exceeded international regulatory limits. Afzal users therefore need to be educated regarding the potential health risks associated with their STP use. Stricter implementation of current legislation is recommended to reduce the availability and usage of Afzal in Oman.
Keywords: Smokeless Tobaccos; Carcinogenesis; Nitrosamines; Tandem Mass Spectrometry; Liquid Chromatography; Oman.
Outcomes of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Estimation of Healthcare Costs in Potential ‘Do Not Resuscitate’ Cases
(Original Study) Akhwand S. Ahmad, Sayed Mudasser, Muhammad N. Khan and Hafiz N. H. Abdoun
ABSTRACT:Objectives: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a life-saving procedure which may fail if applied unselectively. ‘Do not resuscitate’ (DNR) policies can help avoid futile life-saving attempts among terminally-ill patients. This study aimed to assess CPR outcomes and estimate healthcare costs in potential DNR cases. Methods: This retrospective study was carried out between March and June 2014 and included 50 adult cardiac arrest patients who had undergone CPR at Sultan Qaboos Hospital in Salalah, Oman. Medical records were reviewed and treating teams were consulted to determine DNR eligibility. The outcomes, clinical risk categories and associated healthcare costs of the DNR candidates were assessed. Results: Two-thirds of the potential DNR candidates were ≥60 years old. Eight patients (16%) were in a vegetative state, 39 (78%) had an irreversible terminal illness and 43 (86%) had a low likelihood of successful CPR. Most patients (72%) met multiple criteria for DNR eligibility. According to clinical risk categories, these patients had terminal malignancies (30%), recent massive strokes (16%), end-stage organ failure (30%) or were bed-bound (50%). Initial CPR was unsuccessful in 30 patients (60%); the remaining 20 patients (40%) were initially resuscitated but subsequently died, with 70% dying within 24 hours. These patients were ventilated for an average of 5.6 days, with four patients (20%) requiring >15 days of ventilation. The average healthcare cost per patient was USD $1,958.9. Conclusion: With careful assessment, potential DNR patients can be identified and futile CPR efforts avoided. Institutional DNR policies may help to reduce healthcare costs and improve services.
Keywords: Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation; Medical Futility; Do Not Resuscitate Orders; Persistent Vegetative State; Terminally Ill; Healthcare Costs; Oman.
Prevalence and Risk Factors of Antenatal Depression among Omani Women in a Primary Care Setting
Cross-sectional study(Original Study) Mohammed Al-Azri, Iman Al-Lawati, Raya Al-Kamyani, Maisa Al-Kiyumi, Aisha Al-Rawahi, Robin Davidson and Abdullah Al-Maniri4
ABSTRACT:Objectives: This study aimed to identify the prevalence of antenatal depression and the risk factors associated with its development among Omani women. No previous studies on antenatal depression have been conducted in Oman. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out between January and November 2014 in Muscat, Oman. Pregnant Omani women ≥32 gestational weeks who were attending one of 12 local primary care health centres in Muscat for routine antenatal care were invited to participate in the study (n = 986). An Arabic version of the validated self-administered Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale questionnaire was used to measure antenatal depression. A cut-off score of ≥13 was considered to indicate probable depression. Results: A total of 959 women participated in the study (response rate: 97.3%). Of these, 233 were found to have antenatal depression (24.3%). A bivariate analysis showed that antenatal depression was associated with unplanned pregnancies (P = 0.010), marital conflict (P = 0.001) and a family history of depression (P = 0.019). The adjusted odds ratio (OR) after logistic multivariate regression analysis showed that antenatal depression was significantly associated with unplanned pregnancies (OR: 1.37; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02–1.86) and marital conflict (OR: 13.83; 95% CI: 2.99–63.93). Conclusion: The prevalence of antenatal depression among the studied Omani women was high, particularly in comparison to findings from other Arab countries. Thus, antenatal screening for depression should be considered in routine primary antenatal care. Couples should also be encouraged to seek psychological support should marital conflicts develop during pregnancy.
Decisions to Perform Emergency Caesarean Sections at a University Hospital
Do obstetricians agree?(Original Study) Silja A. Pillai, Gowri Vaidyanathan, Maryam Al-Shukri, Tamima R. Al-Dughaishi, Shahila Tazneem, Durdana Khan, Saniya El-Tayeb and Mariam Mathew
ABSTRACT:Objectives: This study was undertaken to assess the degree of agreement amongst obstetricians regarding decisions to perform emergency Caesarean section (CS) procedures at a university hospital. Methods: This retrospective clinical audit was carried out on 50 consecutive emergency CS procedures performed between November 2012 and March 2013 on women with singleton pregnancies at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital in Muscat, Oman. Data on each procedure were collected from electronic patient records and independently reviewed by six senior obstetricians to determine agreement with the decision. Results: Of the 50 women who underwent CS procedures, the mean age was 28.9 ± 5.1 years and 48% were primigravidae. A total of 65% of the CS procedures were category I. The most common indications for a CS was a non-reassuring fetal heart trace (40%) and dystocia (32%). There was complete agreement on the decision to perform 62% of the CS procedures. Five and four obstetricians agreed on 80% and 95% of the procedures, respectively. The range of disagreement was 4–20%. Disagreement occurred primarily with category II and III procedures compared to category I. Additionally, disagreement occurred in cases where the fetal heart trace pattern was interpreted as an indication for a category II CS. Conclusion: The majority of obstetricians agreed on the decisions to perform 94% of the emergency CS procedures. Obstetric decision-making could be improved with the implementation of fetal scalp pH testing facilities, fetal heart trace interpretation training and cardiotocography review meetings.
Effectiveness of a Combined Dance and Relaxation Intervention on Reducing Anxiety and Depression and Improving Quality of Life among the Cognitively Impaired Elderly
(Original Study) Dina Adam, Ayiesah Ramli and Suzana Shahar
ABSTRACT:Objectives: Cognitive impairment is a common problem among the elderly and is believed to be a precursor to dementia. This study aimed to explore the effectiveness of a combined dance and relaxation intervention as compared to relaxation alone in reducing anxiety and depression levels and improving quality of life (QOL) and cognitive function among the cognitively impaired elderly. Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted between May and December 2013 in Peninsular Malaysia. Subjects from four government residential homes for older adults aged ≥60 years with mild to moderate cognitive function as assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination were included in the study. Subjects were divided into an intervention group and a control group; the former participated in a combined poco-poco dance and relaxation intervention whilst the latter participated in relaxation exercises only. Both groups participated in two sessions per week for six weeks. Anxiety and depression were self-assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and QOL was self-assessed using the Quality of Life in Alzheimer’s Disease questionnaire. Results: A total of 84 elderly subjects were included in the study; 44 were in the intervention group and 40 were in the control group. When compared to control subjects, those in the intervention group showed significantly decreased anxiety (P <0.001) and depression (P <0.001) levels as well as improved QOL (P <0.001) and cognitive impairment (P <0.001). Conclusion: Dance as a form of participation-based physical exercise was found to reduce anxiety and depression levels and improve QOL and cognitive function among the studied sample of cognitively impaired elderly subjects in Malaysia.
Keywords: Mild Cognitive Impairment; Dance Therapy; Quality of Life; Anxiety; Depression; Malaysia.
Physical Activity and Quality of Life among Adults with Paraplegia in Odisha, India
(Original Study) Shankar Ganesh and Chittaranjan Mishra
ABSTRACT:Objectives: The complete rehabilitation of patients with spinal cord injuries (SCI) comprises both physical and psychosocial factors. This study therefore aimed to assess physical activity and quality of life (QOL) among paraplegic patients with SCI in Odisha, India. Methods: This cross-sectional prospective study was conducted between March 2010 and December 2013. All paraplegic patients treated at the Swami Vivekanand National Institute of Rehabilitation Training & Research in Odisha, India, during the study period who met the inclusion criteria were invited to participate in the study (n = 364). Structured face-to-face interviews were held with participants and QOL and physical activity were assessed using the abbreviated World Health Organization QOL instrument and the Physical Activity Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities, respectively. Results: A total of 84 people participated in the study (response rate: 23.1%). The mean age was 32.54 ± 10.75 years and 90.5% of the participants were male. Participants had a low mean metabolic equivalent score (18.18 ± 10.68 hours/day). Additionally, low mean scores were noted for the physical health, psychological well-being, social relationships and environment QOL domains (49.76 ± 18.74, 48.57 ± 17.04, 57.88 ± 17.04 and 49.85 ± 17.77, respectively). There was a strong positive association between levels of physical activity and all QOL domains (P <0.050). Physical activity and employment status were significant predictors of all QOL domains (P <0.001). Conclusion: Low physical activity levels and QOL were noted among the paraplegic subjects. Interventions promoting physical activity and employment may help to improve QOL among this patient group.
Keywords: Paraplegia; Spinal Cord Injuries; Quality of Life; Physical Activity; Rehabilitation; India.
Measuring Empathy Levels among Kurdish Medical Students in Erbil City, Iraq
Cross-sectional study(Original Study) Awring M. Raof and Bervian A. Yassin
ABSTRACT:Objectives: Empathy is a crucial attribute within the physician-patient relationship. This study aimed to evaluate the empathy levels of students in the College of Medicine at Hawler Medical University (HMU) in Erbil city, Iraq. Methods: This cross-sectional study took place between January and May 2015 and included all medical undergraduates enrolled at HMU (n = 989). The validated self-administered English language version of the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy-Student Version (JSPE-SV) was used to measure empathy levels. Students reported their conformity to each statement of the 20-item questionnaire on a 7-point Likert scale. Levels of empathy were considered directly relative to their final score. Results: A total of 927 students completed the questionnaire (response rate: 93.7%). The male-to-female ratio was 0.72:1 and the mean age was 21.3 ± 1.4 years. The mean empathy score was 101.9 ± 19.2. Female students had significantly higher empathy (P = 0.023) and more frequently chose people-oriented specialties (P = 0.001) than males. First-year students reported the highest mean score (112.9 ± 20.1) while fourth-year students had the lowest (92.7 ± 16.0). There was a significant decline in mean scores between first- and second-year male students (P = 0.020) and first- and fourth-year male students (P = 0.050). Students who chose people-oriented specialties had significantly higher scores than those who chose technology-oriented specialties (P = 0.002). Conclusion: The studied cohort of HMU students demonstrated low empathy levels. As such, the inclusion of empathy instruction in medical school curricula is recommended to promote professionalism and patient welfare.
Keywords: Empathy; Attitudes; Medical Students; Physician-Patient Relations; Medical Education; Iraq.
Attitudes of Saudi Arabian Undergraduate Medical Students towards Health Research
(Original Study) Sara M. Al-Hilali, Eman Al-Kahtani, Babar Zaman, Rajiv Khandekar, Abdullah Al-Shahri and Deepak P. Edward
ABSTRACT:Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate attitudes, perceptions and perceived barriers towards health research among Saudi Arabian undergraduate medical students. Methods: This cross-sectional study took place between August and October 2014 and included 520 students from five medical schools across Saudi Arabia. An anonymous online survey with 21 close-ended questions was designed to assess students’ attitudes towards research, contribution to research-related activities, awareness of the importance of research, perception of available resources/opportunities for research, appreciation of medical students’ research contributions and perceived barriers to research. Responses were scored on a 5-point Likert scale. Results: A total of 401 students participated in the study (response rate: 77.1%). Of these, 278 (69.3%) were female. A positive attitude towards research was reported by 43.9% of the students. No statistically significant differences were observed between genders with regards to attitudes towards and available resources for research (P = 0.500 and 0.200, respectively). Clinical students had a significantly more positive attitude towards research compared to preclinical students (P = 0.007). Only 26.4% of the respondents believed that they had adequate resources/opportunities for research. According to the students, perceived barriers to undertaking research included time constraints (n = 200; 49.9%), lack of research mentors (n = 95; 23.7%), lack of formal research methodology training (n = 170; 42.4%) and difficulties in conducting literature searches (n = 145; 36.2%). Conclusion: Less than half of the surveyed Saudi Arabian medical students had a positive attitude towards health research. Medical education policies should aim to counteract the barriers identified in this study.
Keywords: Research; Medical Students; Attitudes; Perceptions; Medical Education; Saudi Arabia.
Prevalence of and Reasons for Patients Leaving Against Medical Advice from Paediatric Wards in Oman
(Brief Communication) Mohamed Al-Ghafri, Abdullah Al-Bulushi and Ahmed Al-Qasmi
ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of and reasons for patients leaving against medical advice (LAMA) in a paediatric setting in Oman. This retrospective study was carried out between January 2007 and December 2009 and assessed patients who left the paediatric wards at the Royal Hospital, Muscat, Oman, against medical advice. Of 11,482 regular discharges, there were 183 cases of LAMA (prevalence: 1.6%). Dissatisfaction with treatment and a desire to seek a second opinion were collectively the most cited reasons for LAMA according to data from the hospital’s electronic system (27.9%) and telephone conversations with patients’ parents (55.0%). No reasons for LAMA were documented in the hospital’s electronic system for 109 patients (59.6%). The low observed prevalence of LAMA suggests good medical practice at the Royal Hospital. This study indicates the need for thorough documentation of all LAMA cases to ensure the availability of high-quality data for healthcare workers involved in preventing LAMA.
Single Breath-Hold Physiotherapy Technique
Effective tool for T2* magnetic resonance imaging in young patients with thalassaemia major(Technical Note) Surekha T. Mevada, Najma Al-Mahruqi, Ismail El-Beshlawi, Mohamed El-Shinawy, Mathew Zachariah, Abdul H. Al-Rawas, Shahina Daar and Yasser Wali
ABSTRACT: Magnetic resonance imaging using T2* (MRI T2*) is a highly sensitive and non-invasive technique for the detection of tissue iron load. Although the single breath-hold multi-echo T2* technique has been available at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH), Muscat, Oman, since 2006, it could not be performed on younger patients due to their inability to hold their breath after expiration. This study was carried out between May 2007 and May 2015 and assessed 50 SQUH thalassaemic patients aged 7‒17 years old. Seven of these patients underwent baseline and one-year follow-up MRI T2* scans before receiving physiotherapy training. Subsequently, all patients were trained by a physiotherapist to hold their breath for approximately 15‒20 seconds at the end of expiration before undergoing baseline and one-year follow-up MRI T2* scans. Failure rates for the pre- and post-training groups were 6.0% and 42.8%, respectively. These results indicate that the training of thalassaemic patients in breath-hold techniques is beneficial and increases rates of compliance for MRI T2* scans.
Keywords: Children; Iron Overload; Breath Holding; Physiotherapy; Thalassemia Major; Oman.
Use of Prophylactic Inferior Vena Cava Filters in Trauma
(Continuing Medical Education) Ahmed A. Naiem, Alreem K. Al-Hinai, Rashid Al-Sukaiti and Hani Al-Qadhi
ABSTRACT: Venous thromboembolisms, specifically pulmonary embolisms (PEs), represent a significant burden on healthcare systems worldwide, particularly within the setting of trauma. According to the literature, PEs are the most common cause of in-hospital death; however, this condition can be prevented with a variety of prophylactic and therapeutic measures. This article aimed to examine current evidence on the use, indications for prophylaxis, outcomes and complications of prophylactic inferior vena cava filters in trauma patients.
Atypical Presentations of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection
Case series(Case Series) Nawal Al-Maskari, Jalila Mohsin, Amal Al-Maani, Nabil Al-Macki and Suad Al-Ismaili
ABSTRACT: The respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) usually causes a lower respiratory tract infection in affected patients. RSV has also been infrequently linked to extrapulmonary diseases in children. We report four children who had unusually severe clinical manifestations of RSV infections requiring critical care admission. These patients presented to the Royal Hospital, Muscat, Oman, in December 2013 with acute necrotising encephalopathy (ANE), acute fulminant hepatic failure with encephalopathy, pneumatoceles and croup. A unique presentation of ANE has not previously been reported in association with an RSV infection. All patients had a positive outcome and recovered fully with supportive management.
Mitochondrial Disorders May Mimic Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis at Onset
(Case Report) Josef Finsterer and Sinda Zarrouk-Mahjoub
ABSTRACT: Similarities between a mitochondrial disorder (MID) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) fade with disease progression and the development of mitochondrial multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MIMODS). However, with mild MIMODS, a MID may still be misinterpreted as ALS. We report a 48-year-old male who presented to the Neurological Hospital Rosenhügel, Vienna, Austria, in February 2001 with slowly progressive weakness, wasting and left upper limb fasciculations which spread to the shoulder girdle and lower limbs. Additionally, he developed tetraspasticity and bulbar involvement. He had been diagnosed with ALS a year previously due to electrophysiological investigations indicative of a chronic neurogenic lesion. However, a muscle biopsy revealed morphological features of a MID and a combined complex-II/III defect. Nerve conduction studies were performed over subsequent years until February 2011. This case demonstrates that MIDs may mimic ALS at onset and begin as a mono-organ disorder but develop into a multi-organ disease with long-term progression. A combined complex II/III defect may manifest with bulbar involvement.
Keywords: Motor Neuron Disease; Mitochondrial Disorders; Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis; mtDNA; Oxidative Phosphorylation; Case Report; Austria.
Primary Combined Latissimus Dorsi and Serratus Anterior Flap Repair of Right-Sided Congenital Diaphragmatic Agenesis in a Neonate
(Case Report) Madan Samuel and Rajiv Parapurath
ABSTRACT: Large diaphragmatic defects can be repaired with latissimus dorsi and serratus anterior muscle flaps. We report the first successful primary repair of complete congenital diaphragmatic agenesis using a combination of autologous living bio-tissue and synthetic mesh in a neonate born in the NMC Specialty Hospital in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, in May 2014. Poor Apgar scores, a scaphoid abdomen and absent breath sounds over the right hemithorax were observed at birth. Chest and abdominal X-rays revealed a diaphragmatic hernia. The neonate was stabilised using high-frequency oscillatory ventilation, nitric oxide and sildenafil. The right diaphragm was reconstructed using combined latissimus dorsi and serratus anterior muscle flaps reinforced by a flexible composite mesh. At 12 months old, the infant had normal respiratory function and the diaphragm was intact. No disabilities of the shoulder or scapula were observed. This case indicates that a combination of living tissue and synthetic mesh can be used to reconstruct a functional diaphragm with efficient pleuroperitoneal separation.
Keywords: Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia; Neonate; Reconstructive Surgical Procedures; Autologous Transplantation; Surgical Mesh; Sildenafil Citrate; Case Report; United Arab Emirates.
Unusual Presentation of Dengue Fever
A child with acute myocarditis(Case Report) Moaz Aslam, Numra A. Aleem, Mohammad F. Zahid and Arshalooz J. Rahman
ABSTRACT: Dengue fever (DF) is an acute febrile illness that follows a self-limiting course. However, some patients suffer from complications, including myocarditis, due to the involvement of other organs. A child presented at the Aga Khan University Hospital in Karachi, Pakistan, in June 2013 with a high-grade fever, malaise and epigastric pain radiating to the chest. Positive DF antigen and immunoglobulin M assays confirmed the diagnosis of DF. Persistent bradycardia with low blood pressure led to further cardiac investigations which showed a decreased ejection fraction and raised serum cardiac enzymes, indicating myocardial damage. With supportive care and use of inotropes, the spontaneous normalisation of cardiac enzyme levels and ejection fraction was observed. The child was discharged five days after admission. This case highlights the importance of identifying myocarditis in DF patients suffering from cardiac symptoms that are not explained by other potential aetiologies. Awareness, early suspicion and supportive care are essential to ensure favourable outcomes.
Keywords: Dengue Fever; Myocarditis; Complications; Child; Case Report; Pakistan.
Renal Tuberculosis Presenting as a Mass Lesion in a Two-year-old Girl
Report of a rare case(Case Report) Avradip Santra, Falguni Mandi and Abhishek Bandyopadhyay
ABSTRACT: Genitourinary tuberculosis usually occurs in young adults and the middle-aged and is very uncommon in the paediatric population. It generally presents with haematuria, pyuria, irritative voiding symptoms and flank pain; presentation as a renal mass is highly unusual. We report a two-year-old girl who was referred to the Nil Ratan Sircar Medical College, Kolkata, India, in June 2014 with abdominal pain. Subsequent radiological investigations revealed a left renal hypoechoic mass lesion. A left nephroureterectomy was performed on suspicion of a Wilms’ tumour. Histopathology indicated an epithelioid granuloma with lymphocytic infiltration, suggestive of a tubercular aetiology. A Mantoux tuberculin skin test was positive; however, there was no evidence of tuberculosis detected elsewhere in the body and the source of the infection could not be identified. A diagnosis of renal tuberculosis was made and the child was treated with antitubercular drugs. The patient was asymptomatic at a six-month follow-up.
Keywords: Renal Tuberculosis; Urogenital Tuberculosis; Abdominal Pain; Granuloma; Case Report; India.
Combination of a Giant Dissected Ascending Aortic Aneurysm with Multiple Fistulae into the Cardiac Chambers Caused by Prosthetic Aortic Valve Endocarditis
(Case Report) Feridoun Sabzi and Reza Faraji
ABSTRACT: The combination of a dissected ascending aortic aneurysm (AA) with multiple fistulae to the periaortic root structures is a life-threatening complication that occurs rarely after infective endocarditis of the prosthetic aortic valve. Many risk factors are potentially associated with this complication, including aortic diameter, connective tissue disease of the aortic wall, hypertension and infection. We report a rare case of dissected ascending AA with fistulae to the left atrium and pulmonary artery and a paravalvular leak in a 47-year-old woman with a history of an aortic valve replacement. The patient had presented to the Imam Ali Hospital, Kermanshah, Iran, in January 2015 with clinical features of heart failure. After initially being treated for congestive heart failure, she underwent open-heart surgery via a classic Bentall procedure and double fistula closure. She was discharged 23 days after the operation in good condition. A six-month follow-up showed normal functioning of the composite conduit prosthetic valve and no fistulae recurrence.
Keywords: Aneurysm; Aortic Valve; Fistula; Case Report; Iran.