sodium chloride

(klor' ide)
Parenteral: Sodium Chloride Injection (various)
Prescription and OTC oral preparations: Minims Sodium Chloride (CAN), Saline from Otrivin (CAN), Salinex (CAN), Sodium Chloride Tablets

Pregnancy Category C

Drug class


Therapeutic actions


Sodium chloride is the principal salt involved in the maintenance of plasma tonicity; important for maintaining plasma volume, promoting membrane stability and electrolyte balance.

Indications

Contraindications/cautions


Dosage


Available Forms: Tablets--650 mg; 1, 2.25 g; injections--various preparations

Adult

Oral:

1---2 g PO tid.

IV:

Isotonic (replacement) 1 L administered over 1 h; hypotonic (0.45%; hydration) 1---2 L over 1---2 h; hypertonic (3---5%; treatment of hyponatremia) 100 mL over 1 h.

Pediatric:

Safety and efficacy not determined; replacement must be monitored closely and based on clinical response.

Geriatric and Renal Impaired:

Reduce dosage, and carefully monitor base deficit and clinical response.

Pharmacokinetics

RouteOnsetPeak
OralUnknown
IVImmediateEnd of infusion

Metabolism: T1/2: unknown

Distribution: Crosses placenta; enters breast milk

Excretion: Urine

IV facts


Adverse effects


Nursing Considerations


Assessment


History: Hypernatremia, fluid retention, pregnancy, impaired renal function, CHF, edematous or sodium-retaining states, lactation, surgical patients
Physical: Skin color, turgor; injection sites; P, rhythm, peripheral edema; bowel sounds, abdominal exam; urinary output; serum electrolytes, urinalysis, renal function tests

Implementation



Drug-specific teaching points

Adverse effects in Italic are most common; those in Bold are life-threatening.